VALUYKI Falls! January 1943

44 Infantry Division in VALUYKI South

44 Infantry Division in VALUYKI South

44th Infantry Division (Hoch und Deutschmeister) had found temporary respite in VALUYKI as the Soviet Winter Offensive surged westward, following the failed Fall Blau. Holding a rail junction and two river crossings, VALUYKI was a typical Soviet town, with rail sidings, low-rise workers apartments, and little else.

44 Divisional Artillery in VALUYKI Rail Sidings

44 Divisional Artillery in VALUYKI Rail Sidings

The 44th was a Viennese division that had not particularly distinguished itself up to this point in the war, and which now found itself facing two cavalry divisions (1st and 28th) on the boundaries of two separate Army offensives (16 and 11) that had shown little inclination to be hindered by snow, ice or frozen rivers¹.

VALUYKI

No help could be expected from the north and west, where XIV Motorised Korps and I Panzer Korps were strung out in unpromising winter conditions with a huge gap in the front to their north, with KURSK at its centre. To the southwest, 11th Army with their Hungarian and Romanian allies were having problems of their own.  Nevertheless, the recently appointed divisional commander, Lieutenant General Heinrich Deboi was confident that he could hold the town and rail yards, and prepared his regiments for a second long winter in the depths of Russia. Information from Korps intelligence, was that his division was sitting astride two army boundaries, and so could reasonably expect to be bypassed.

1st Cavalry Division Plods across the Snowy Landscape

1st Cavalry Division Plods across the Snowy Landscape

 

The Cossacks of 28 Cavalry Division Outflank to the North

The Cossacks of 28 Cavalry Division Outflank to the North

Initially, things went well: The horizon filled with clouds of cavalry and horse-drawn transport, making their way steadily towards and around the defences.

28 Cavalry Approaches VALUYKI

1st and 28th Cavalry Approach VALUYKI

After a few days though, the cavalry artillery began to pound defences in the southwest corner of the town, and as casualties mounted, the enemy began to force its way in through the defences, with vicious close-quarter fighting through the spread out suburbs. It was clear that liaison officers had been working across the army boundaries to formulate a plan to eliminate this troublesome point of resistance

The Southeast Suburbs of VALUYKI are Overrun

The Southeast Suburbs of VALUYKI are Overrun

Inexorably, the net closed until the town was cut off  from relief. Austrian pioneers destroyed the bridges across the frozen rivers to prevent rail traffic. Soviet pioneers breached minefields covered in snow and ice.

VALUYKI is Surrounded

VALUYKI is Surrounded

Fighting Reaches the Centre of VALUYKI

Fighting Reaches the Centre of VALUYKI

Divisional Artillery Fires over Open Sights in the Railyards

Divisional Artillery Firing over Open Sights in the Railyards

… until after a month of hard fighting, the town fell, with the surviving Austrians being led off to an uncertain future.

The Final Moments of 44th Infantry Division in VALUYKI

The Final Moments of 44th Infantry Division in VALUYKI

This game was fought over two hours on a Sunday afternoon with YesthatPhil. He sized up the scenario, looked at the brief that said “Surround and Bypass”, but decided that a battle would be more satisfying. He then proceeded to tear through the hapless Austrians, demolishing the defence in the space of an hour.

One of the features of NQM is that the relatively low numbers of dice rolled for combats gives a sometimes very grainy set of results. Some players hate this and see it as a failure of rule design. I see it as a perfect way of introducing friction. Phil was successful because he concentrated his limited artillery assets on one corner of the town until he could fight his troops in. From then on, he concentrated his attacks sequentially, pulling out troops that needed to reorganise, and reinforcing the attacks with fresh troops held back for just this purpose. I was unable to do the same with only half as many troops, and limited real estate in which to deploy them. It wasn’t long before the Cossacks were forcing my fighting troops back onto my logistic park, with predictable results. Having space to pull troops out of the firing line is essential if they are not to become overloaded with casualties very quickly. Having said that, the Austrians won very few firefights and very few close assaults … it was just one of those days for them.

Phils New Toys in Combat

Phil’s New Toys in Combat. A White Scout Car Scout Company Faces off against the PanzerJäger Battalion

Phil achieved one of his personal objectives of getting his new White scout car into combat, along with a rather nice Jeep converted into a Gaz Jeep. His cinematically themed Hollywood Kirk Douglas Spartacus DBA slave Army is pretty nice too. We spent the extra time discussing trucks and 3D printing. More to follow on that once the paint dries.

  1. I checked AFTER I had set up the tabletop, only to find that the main river runs to the WEST of VALUYKI … oh well, it’s frozen!
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Butler Printed Models

These printed 1:100 models arrived in the post today. Review to follow. First impressions are very good. The pictures highlight any printing imperfections, and I suspect that paint will smooth out the lines. Everything is finely printed and spot-on square. The supporting web peels off easily with pliers.

The nylon printing material looks tough , so I am not expecting fine detail to break off in play.

There are some printing flaws, but if they don’t buff out, they already pass the three foot test.

Lines are most obvious on circular and sloping surfaces. Intricate detail can be printed in one piece.

The support webs are well designed and peel away quickly. To be continued …

 

 

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10th Armoured Division Updated

Just off the workbench are two rather nice Forged in Battle Grant tanks from 10th Armoured Division. They can be seen in their new home in 8th Armoured Brigade with the rest of their chums on the updated Box 35 page.

8th Armd Bde

 

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Battle of Crete – Axis Land & Airborne Forces

Axis forces – Land, Airborne

Luftlande Sturmregiment

Headquarters Luftlande SturmregimentGeneralmajor Eugen Meindl, then Col. Ramcke, Maj. Braun[11] Comd (C3,Vet,Lad)

1st Glider Battalion, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Battalion, 4th Battalion 4 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad)

Two glider companies were detached and seconded to 7th Flieger Division, below

7th Flieger Division

Box 057 Fallschirmjaeger Division

Box 057 Fallschirmjäger Division

HQ, 7th Flieger DivisionComd (C3,Vet,Lad) Generalleutnant Wilhelm Süssmann

1st Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Bruno Bräuer Comd (C3,Vet,Lad), Signals (C3, Vet, Lad)1st Bn, 2nd Bn, 3rd Bn: 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad) – Heraklion

2nd Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Alfred Sturm, Maj, Schulz, Captain Paul[11] Comd (C3,Vet,Lad), Signals (C3, Vet, Lad)1st Bn, 2nd Bn, 3rd Bn: 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad)Retimno The 2nd Battalion of the 2nd FJ Rgt was used with the 1st FJ Rgt

3rd Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Richard Heidrich, Lt. Heckel[12] Comd (C3,Vet,Lad), Signals (C3, Vet, Lad)1st Bn, 2nd Bn, 3rd Bn: 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad– Hania

7th Fallschirmjäger Engineer Battalion Engr (E3,Vet,HaLd)

Fallschirmjaeger Pioneers and Recce

7th Fallschirmjäger Artillery Battalion 10.5cm or 7.5mm Mtn Arty (S3,Vet,MaLd)

Fallschirmjaeger Artillery

7th Fallschirmjäger Machine Gun Battalion MMG (S3,Vet,Lad)

7th Fallschirmjäger Anti-tank Battalion 7.5cm PaK (S3,Vet,MaLd) 

FallschirmJaeger RHQ or PaK Companyor

Fallschirmjaeger Artillery

5th Gebirgsjäger Division

Headquarters, 5th Gebirgs DivisionGeneralmajor Julius Ringel, Maj. Haidlen, Capt. Ferchl[12] Comd (C3,Vet,Lad)

85th Gebirgsjäger Regiment Oberst August Krakau Comd (C3,Vet,Lad) 1st Battalion – 2nd Battalion – 3rd Battalion 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad)

100th Gebirgsjäger Regiment Oberst Willibald Utz  Comd (C3,Vet,Lad1st Battalion – 2nd Battalion – 3rd Battalion 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad)

141st Gebirgsjäger Regiment Oberst Maximilian Jais Comd (C3,Vet,Lad) 1st Battalion – 2nd Battalion – 3rd Battalion 3 Rifle (F3,Vet,Lad)

95th Gebirgsjäger Artillery Battalion 10.5cm Mtn Arty (S3,Vet,MaLd)

95th Gebirgsjäger Anti-tank Battalion 7.5cm PaK (S3,Vet,MaLd)

95th Gebirgsjäger Reconnaissance Battalion Recce (R3,Vet,Lad)

95th Gebirgsjäger Engineer Battalion Engr (E3,Vet,HaLd)

95th Gebirgsjäger Signal Battalion Signals (C3,Vet,Lad)

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Corps Scale Orbat Crete- Allied Land Forces

This post is the first stage for planning a CRETE game at CSO scale. Orbat from Wickipedia as usual.

Land forces

Commonwealth & Allied Forces, Crete – “Creforce”

HQs Creforce – (Eastern Zone, east of Chania)
Major-General Bernard Freyberg, VC, Colonel Stewart[1]
Major G.W.Peck
10 Light Tank Mk VIs Mk VI (F1,Reg,Lad)
Lieutenant George Simpson
Two Matilda tanks, crewed in part by two officers and five gunners of the 2/3rd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery (RAA). Matilda Mk II (F1,Mil,Ma,Hd)
Lieutenant Colonel A. Duncan, MC (Force Reserve) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)
HQ New Zealand Division – Brigadier, Acting Major General[1] Edward Puttick – (Western Zone, west of Chania) Comd (C3,Reg,Lad), Signals (C3,Reg,Ld), Log (L3,Reg,Ld)

14th Infantry Brigade

    • 2nd Bn, Leicestershire Regt (Lt. Col. CHV Cox, DSO, MC) (637 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 2nd Bn, York and Lancaster Regt (Lt. Col. A Gilroy) (742 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 2nd Bn, Black Watch (Major AA Pitcairn in temporary command[a][b]) (867 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 2/4th Australian Inf Bn (Lt. Col. Ivan Noel Dougherty)[c] (550 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 1st Bn, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Lieut. Col. RCB Anderson, DSO, MC Tymbaki Sector) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 7th Medium Regt, RA (Maj. R.J.B. Snook, DSO (wounded – 20 May 1941). No artillery equipment – armed as infantry. (450 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Mil,Lad)

    • 3rd Greek Regt (656 Officers and men), (Lt. Col Ant Betinakis) Comd (C1,Reg,Lad), Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • 7th Greek Regiment (877 Officers and men), (Col. E Cheretis) Comd (C1,Reg,Lad), Comd (C1,Reg,Lad), Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

    • Greek Garrison Bn (ex-Greek 5th “Crete” Division, left behind as a garrison when their division was summoned to defend the mainland; 830 Officers and men) Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

19th Australian Infantry Brigade

Mobile Base Defence Organization

Headquarters Mobile Base Defence Organization – Maj.-Gen. CE Weston-Souda Bay Comd (C3,Reg,Lad), Signals (C3,Reg,Ld), Log (L3,Reg,Ld)
  • 5th Coast Regiment, RA[4]

  • “S” Royal Marine Composite Bn, Maj. R Garrett (RM) Rifle (F1,Reg,Lad)

  • 1st Bn, The Rangers, The King’s Royal Rifle Corps – (later designated 9th Battalion, The King’s Royal Rifle Corps (The Rangers)) [5] Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

  • 102nd (Northumberland Hussars) ATk Regt RA – no equipment, used as infantry[6][7] Rifle (F3,Mil,Lad)

  • 106th (Lancashire Hussars) LAA Regt RA[8] – Lt. Col. AF Hely 40mm Bofors + Morris FAT  (S3,Vet,Ma,Ld)

  • 16th Australian Bde Composite Bn Formed from the under strength 2/2nd and 2/3rd Australian Inf Bns Rifle (F2,Reg,Lad)

  • 17th Australian Bde Composite Bn Formed from the understrength 2/5th and 2/6th Australian Inf Bns Rifle (F2,Reg,Lad)

  • 2nd Greek Regt Comd (C3,Reg,Lad), 2 Rifle (F3,Reg,Lad)

  • 2nd Heavy AA Regt RM 40mm bofors + Morris FAT  (S3,Vet,Ma,Ld)

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Tidying the Rules

Following the ALAMEIN Game I have tidied the rules to address some specific “problems” that the players commented on. Take this defended square as an example:

Defended position in contact with three sides of the square but no minefield

Defended position in contact with three sides of the square but no minefield

  1. An attacker may not occupy a square until he has defeated the enemy in that square. He may enter the square if the defender has surrendered and is still occupying the square. Example: The brave Italian battalion is in a defended position that contacts three sides and is the sole occupant of the square. It does not have to decide which edge it is defending as the position covers three sides of the square, and it is in contact with the position. The attackers can bring 2 fighting battalions to bear in close assault against it. It would not matter if one was attacking “from the flank” as the position is almost in all round defence. If one of the battalions had worked its way round to the undefended rear, the attack could go in as a Light versus Light. As it is, the attack is Light versus Medium.

    4th Indian Division Brigade Attack with 2 Battalions Forward

    4th Indian Division Brigade Attack with two Battalions Forward

  2. Close assault may only occur across the boundary line between two squares, by the attacking units on the boundary line. Example: The attacker has gone in on the flank. He does not avoid the defences that cover three sides of the  square, but he does avoid the minefield to the front of the position. The defenders are in contact with the position, which is in contact with three sides of the square. There is only one brigade attack against one regimental defence regardless of the fact that the defenders appear to be lined up against the front of the square and the attackers only appear to be attacking one battalion.

    4th Indian Division Flank Attack against a Colonial Regiment

    4th Indian Division Flank Attack against a Colonial Regiment

  3.  A defender may only defend across a boundary line by being in contact with the boundary line. If the defences that the defender is in contact the boundary line, this suffices. This means that a defender in contact with a corner can defend one to four square edges, and any close assaults from these edges must be resolved as one close assault, with the attacker and defender each choosing where they place their own casualties. A defending unit who’s defences fill the square will count as being in all-round defence. A wise attacker with overwhelming strength may decide that it is easier to win the firefight so comprehensively that he overloads and destroys the defender before close assaulting, because even if he attacks simultaneously from all four sides of the square, there is only one close assault. As a defender, you may only want three sides to be defended if you have to counterattack the position from the rear with armour. It would  be usual to have infantry lanes through your own minefields to the rear, but you must specify this in your plan.

    Colonial Battalion Defends Four Sides of a Square with Minefields

    Colonial Battalion Defends Four Sides of a Square with Minefields

  4. A defender with no remaining strength points may not contest entry to a square. If the defending unit cannot retreat out of the square, it is overrun. A unit may not carry more hits than it can absorb. Any excess causes the unit to be lost.

    50 Division Takes Heavy Casualties but Advances on D+2 to D+3

    50 Division Takes Heavy Casualties but Advances on D+2 to D+3

  5. Any attacker having the temerity to place his unit overlapping the defences or the defending unit has immediately blundered into an ambush and takes hits as if he is a light target, with the defender rolling twice his normal dice. In the example picture above,  the Crusader regiments have not quite blundered into a minefield, but they are crowded and will count as ambushed if fired upon.

    7 Armd Div Advances

    7 Armd Div Advances

  6. Any defender crowding units into a square such that they overlap loses the benefit of the defence and counts as a light target.

    Colonial battalion defends two sides of a square

    Colonial battalion defends two sides of a square

  7. In both the examples above just think of “cocked dice”. If your opponent kindly points your ungentlemanly behaviour out to you, then you have been given a chance to rectify your error. If you cannot not put your own house in order, then you suffer the penalty. The umpire should be vigilant as even the calmest players get carried away in the heat of the moment. I don’t know where to start on Plum Pudding Hill!
    Plum Pudding Hill

    Plum Pudding Hill

    In any circumstance where there is ambiguity, each side may claim the most favourable interpretation to apply to their own side  and must accept the opponent’s interpretation of their own side in return. The umpire will be even-handed in this respect without fear or favour.

I think that if I had started squares from scratch, I would have chosen Tim’s Megablitz 40mm square bases, but there are a lot of 50mm FoW bases out there, and at the end of the day, it doesn’t really matter all that much, unless there is a disparity in base size between sides.

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ALAMEIN Operation Lightfoot Post Game Reflection

We played out ten moves in five hours of play. Players were pretty good about keeping to schedule, but I really need dice boxes to stop all the cocked dice and subsequent rerolls as the little cuboid rascals leapt off the table to explore the carpet.

The pins were a huge success as were the dice frames. I only saw one battalion promote itself to a five!

Assault Pioneers Fail Spectacularly

Assault Pioneers Fail Spectacularly

There was a lot of constructive feedback after the game: Calls to upgrade the defenders from M to H during the day  had validity in some circumstances, such as the opening barrage, but defenders are strong enough already. They can hold their own at odds of 2:1, and unless positions are concealed on reverse slopes in daylight, they can be picked off or neutralised at leisure by FOOs. Gunners delight in telling folk that the best round for producing smoke is HE to obscure vision during an attack.  I will probably go with a stacking mechanism to prevent another plum pudding hill though.

Opening Barrage on D Day

Opening Barrage on D Day

The Venetian blind chain worked for minefield gaps, but I shall build something more cinematic eventually. The cork tiles were fine, but I need to represent contours in a better fashion. There was a plateau on the table that nobody could see.

1st free French Cross through the Minefield Gaps

1st free French Cross through the Minefield Gaps

I still am not a fan of the grid aesthetic, but it is too useful to ignore, and the proper wargamers like it, so I’m going with the flow for the time being.

The players gathered for a final Victory Photograph by dint of some rapid cutting and pasting. The roll call of Men in Hats includes from L to R back Row:

Phil Steele (Free French, XIII Corps and 7th Armd Div), Gary "Pip" Roberts (1st Greek Bde, 5oth Div), Chris Kemp (Umpire), Tim "von" Gow (XX Corps, 21st Pz, Ariete), Richard Lindley (Brescia), Steve Churchus (Ramke). Front Row: Trebian (Folgore, Pavia), Tim Merry (44th Div)

Phil Steele (Free French, XIII Corps and 7th Armd Div), Gary “Pip” Roberts (1st Greek Bde, 5oth Div), Chris Kemp (Umpire), Tim “von” Gow (XX Corps, 21st Pz, Ariete), Richard Lindley (Brescia), Steve Churchus (Ramke). Front Row: Trebian (Folgore, Pavia), Tim Merry (44th Div)

Full marks if you spotted Vietnamese Solar Topees, German infantry Feldmütze, Fez, Panama, Homberg  and Queen’s Gurkha Engineers No.1 Dress Hat. Not in that order, obviously.

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ALAMEIN Operation Lightfoot D+4 to 5 – 27 to 28 Oct 1942

An Exhausted 50th Division is Fought to a Standstill on D+5

An Exhausted 50th Division is Fought to a Standstill on D+5

By now the cauldron had been renamed “Plum Pudding Hill” by the Umpire, as it had turned into a big pile of infantry with tanks poured over them like custard.   I should have imposed some order earlier, but Gary R and Tim G were passing   all their morale tests, and having fun, so it seemed simpler top go with the flow.

Plum Pudding Hill

Plum Pudding Hill

When the combat finally resolved, both 50th Infantry Division and 22nd Armoured Brigade were shattered. 21 Panzer was in little better shape, so when leading elements of 10th Armoured Division appeared to their rear, they were foced to  turn about and fight them off.

Ariete in Position to prevent the Inevitable Breakthrough

Ariete in Position to prevent the Inevitable Breakthrough

Pavia was confident in the deep south that having Ariete supporting them for a counterattack would stave off any threatened breakthrough from 4th Light Armoured Brigade. The earlier failure to stem the northern breakthrough was having consequences though, as Ariete was called north to bolster the Italian withdrawal. There seemed to be a callous lack of sympathy from the German High Command as they efficiently regrouped prior to withdrawing, and Pavia broadcast their betrayal to anyone who would listen.

Ramke had known this for a few hours already, through Luftwaffe channels, but when the order came to pull back, they were still heavily engaged and had to wait until 50th Division and the dashing “Pip” Roberts had immolated themselves on “Plum Pudding Hill” before sloping off in the gathering dusk of D+5.

Pavia Abandoned to their Fate

Pavia Abandoned to their Fate

Finally, 1st Free French had driven off the remains of Kampfgruppe Kiel, and threaded a way through the minefields to the south of Pavia, paving the way for 4th Light Armoured Brigade to break out into the open desert.

Free French - Bon Alors!

Free French – Bon Alors!

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ALAMEIN Operation Lightfoot D+3 to 4 – 26 to 27 Oct 1942

Rommel is not Happy

Rommel is not Happy

The game resumed after a convivial and entertaining lunch, with the allies continuing to grind through the Axis defences. Calls for 21 Panzer were becoming ever more strident. In reality, I am not sure if Rommel, a General who excelled in not obeying orders when it suited him, would have tolerated insubordination in his own generals to this extent.

Assault Pioneers Fail Spectacularly

Assault Pioneers Fail Spectacularly

For now though, von Gow and  Steve C (commanding Ramke) were benefitting from the support of 21 Panzer as Gary R’s 50th Northumbrian Division and 1st Greek Brigade pushed relentlessly onward. A local counterattack by Ramke’s assault pioneers failed spectacularly, even rolling white instead of black dice fooled no-one, as they came up with three ones! Gary’s infantry were getting pretty low in strength, so he ordered 22nd Armoured Brigade forward against the final obstacle to make a breakout possible.

DAF over the Cauldron

DAF over the Cauldron

Every NGM western desert game so far has seen a cauldron develop at the point of contact when an Axis panzer division has contacted an Allied armoured brigade. This game was no exception as the two sides fought for supremacy on the ground and in the air.

Dogfight over Ramke

Dogfight over Ramke

Meanwhile to the south, the 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division commanded by Tim M, was steadily chewing its way through stubborn opposition. Pavia and Folgore were only holding by counterattacking with fresh reserves, then reoccupying positions with units that were already spent. Nevertheless, the NQM-experienced Trebian was forcing the Allies to fight hard for every position taken.

The Cauldron

The Cauldron

21 Panzer Division get the Upper Hand in the Cauldron D+3 to D+4

21 Panzer Division get the Upper Hand in the Cauldron D+3

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ALAMEIN Operation Lightfoot D+2 to 3 – 25 to 26 Oct 1942

21st Panzer Division on the March

Allons Enfants de la Patrié

If Allied pressure was heavy along the southern half of the battlefield,then it was heavier still along the north. Rommel arrived in theatre on the 25th, ordering von Gow  to release 21 Panzer Division to reinforce 15 Panzer. Unlike the real Generalmajor Johann von Ravenstein, von Gow was creative with his orders to attack to the north as an instruction to attack in support of Ramke Parachute Brigade Group. This undoubtedly saved Ramke on D+4, but had consequences for the battle as a whole as it allowed 10th Armoured Division to break through to the north of Ruwiesat Ridge.

DAF gets the upper hand D+2

DAF gets the upper hand D+2 onwards

I had told the Axis players that the armoured reserve had only been released enough fuel to move north, so they had no way of knowing if more fuel would be made available to return south when needed. Historically, it was, and I had no plans to change this.

21st Panzer Division on the March

21st Panzer Division on the March

The Allied generals were sticking to their plan of putting pressure along the whole front, advancing behind barrages, and sucking up the heavy casualties as they were inflicted. I was impressed by the way the allies stuck to their guns. In reality, there was a lull in the south as the battle switched north, but we played on through D+3 until an earlier lunch than planned at around 12:30. Two and a half hours of uninterrupted game time was beginnning to take its toll, but the Axis players still had their hats!

 

During the day [25 Oct D+3], Rommel reversed his policy of distributing his armour across the front, ordering … 21st Panzer north along with one third of the Ariete Division and half the artillery from the southern sector to concentrate with 15th Panzer and Littorio in the north

Hinsley, F. H.; Thomas, E. E.; Ransom, C. F. G.; Knight, R. C. (1981). British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its influence on Strategy and Operations. II. London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-630934-2. in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein#CITEREFHinsley1981 accessed on 23/10/2018

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