8th Army NQM CSO Orbat at ALAMEIN

Sandars1

8th Army Corps Scale Orbat (CSO) for ALAMEIN –

Parts of the orbat that I do not intend to model are in light grey

8th-army

8th Army

Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery Comd staff car (C3), Tac HQ DAF (C3), CRA (C3)

montys-staff-car

Under direct Army Command

  • 12th Anti-Aircraft Brigade

    • 14th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

      • Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)

    • 16th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

      • Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)
    • 27th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

      • Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)
    • 88th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

      • Matador Limber + 3.7″  AA (S3)
    • 94th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

      • Matador Limber + 3.7″  AA (S3)
    • 27th (London Electrical Engineers) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery (two troops) Searchlight (C1)

  • 2nd Anti-Aircraft Brigade (for HQ and railway protection[1]) HQ with 8th Army HQ

    • 2nd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery Morris Limber (s3), 40mm Bofors AA (s3)

    • 69th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery (199th and 261st batteries) Matador Limber (s3), 3.7″  AA (s3)

8th-army

Army Troops

  • 6th South African Armoured Car Regiment (One troop – not modelled) – Marmon-Herrington III

  • B Squadron, 6th Royal Tank Regiment – Crusader II Tank (could be Grant or Stuart M3) (S1)

  • 566th Army Troops Coy, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  •  568th Army Troops Coy, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)
  • 25th Field Coy, South African Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 27th Field Coy, South African Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 31st Field Coy, South African Engineers Sapper Base (@E1)

  • 1st? Tank Delivery Regt Scammel Tank Transporter (L1)
  • 8th Army Signals Monty’s Caravan” Signals Truck (C3)

montys-caravan

10th-corps

X Corps

Lieutenant-General Herbert Lumsden Comd staff car (C3), CRA Truck (C3), Ambulance (L3),

  • 571st Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 572nd Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 573rd Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 570th Field Park Company, Royal Engineers Low Loader or Truck (L3)

  • X Corps Signals Signals Truck (C3)

1st-armdiv

1st Armoured Division

Major-General Raymond Briggs Comd Grant Tank (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 1st Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper Base (E1)

  • 9th Field Park Squadron, RE (from 8th Armd Div) Truck (L1)

  • 1st Armoured Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

2nd Armoured Brigade

1st Armoured Division 2nd Armoured Brigade

Brigadier Arthur Fisher Crusader II (C3)

92 Sherman, 68 Crusader, one Grant = 161 tanks[2] (3 Shermans, 2 Crusaders)

7th Motor Brigade

Brigadier Thomas J. Bosville Dingo  Armd Car (C3)

  • 2nd Battalion, Kings Royal Rifle Corps Infantry stand with Carrier   + 6pdr Atk (F3)

  • 2nd Battalion, Rifle Brigade (detached less support company to Hammerforce)

  • 7th Battalion, Rifle Brigade Infantry stand with Carrier + 6pdr Atk (F3)

Hammerforce (attached from 8th Armoured Division)
  • 4th/6th SA A/C Regt Marmon-Herrington III (R3)

    146(Pembroke & Cardiganshire) Fd Regt RA Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 73rd Atk Regtt, RA Universal Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 56th LAA Regt, RA Morris Tow + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)

  • Z Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (machine gun) Infantry MMG stand (S3)

  • 7th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 9th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

10th-armdiv

10th Armoured Division

 

Major-General Alexander Gatehouse Comd Dingo (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 2nd Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 3rd Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 6th Fd Sqn, RE (att fm 8th Armd Div) 1 Sapper base (E1)

  • 141st Fd Park Sqn, RE Low Loader or Truck (L3)

  • 10th Armoured Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

8th Armoured Brigade

Brigadier Edward C.N. Custance  Crusader II (C3)

45 Crusaders, 57 Grants, 31 Sherman = 133 tanks (1 Crusader, 2 Grants , 1 Sherman)

24th Army Tk Bde
 24th Armoured Brigade (attached from 8th Armoured Division) 

Brigadier Arthur G. Kenchington Crusader II (C3)

2 Grants, 93 Shermans, 45 Crusaders = 140 tanks (1 Crusader, 3 Shermans)

133rd Infantry Brigade (attached from 44th Infantry Division)

Brigadier Alec W. Lee Dingo  Armd Car or Signals Truck (C3)

  • 2nd Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment Infantry stand (F3)

  • 4th Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment Infantry stand (F3)

  • 5th Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment Infantry stand (F3)

  • W Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (machine gun) (att fm 8th Armd Div) Inf MMG stand (S3)

8th-armdiv

8th Armoured Division

Major-General Charles Gairdner Comd staff car (C3), Ammo Truck (L3), POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3) (This divisional HQ does not need to be modelled)

(all brigades stripped away from the division prior to the Second Battle of El Alamein)

23rd Armoured Brigade

24th Armoured Brigade

133rd Infantry Brigade

Support Units

8th Support Group
  • 6th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (detached to 10th Armoured Division)

  • 9th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (detached to 1st Armoured Division)

  • 145th Field Park Squadron, Royal Engineers

  • 8th Armoured Division Signals Signals truck (C3)

13th-corps

XIII Corps

Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks Comd staff car (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 4th/6th South African Armoured Car Regiment (one troop) Marmon Herrington armoured car (R1)

  • 578th Army Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 576th Corps Fd Park Coy, RE Low Loader or Truck (E3)

  • XIII Corps Signals Signals Truck (C3)

50th-infdiv

50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

Major-General John Nichols Comd staff car (C3), Ammo Truck (L3), POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 2nd Bn, Cheshire Regiment (MG Bn) Inf MMG stand (F3)

  • 233rd Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 505th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 235th Fd Park Coy, RE Low Loader or Truck (E3)

  • 50th Northumbrian Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

1st Greek Infantry Brigade

Colonel Pausanias Katsotas Comd in Jeep (C3)

  • 1st Infantry Battalion Infantry stand (F3)

  • 2nd Infantry Battalion Infantry stand (F3)

  • 3rd Infantry Battalion Infantry stand (F3)

  • 1st Greek Fd Artillery Regiment Quad FAT (L3), 25pdr (S3)

  • 1st Greek Machine Gun Company Infantry MMG stand (S1)

  • 1st Greek Field Company, Greek Engineers Sapper base (E1)

151st Infantry Brigade (attached to 2nd New Zealand Division 29 October to 3 November)

Brigadier Joscelyn E.S. Percy  Comd in staff car (C3)

  • 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

69th Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Edward C. Cooke-Collis Comd in staff car (C3)

2nd Free French Brigade Group (under command)
  • 5th Battalion de Marche Infantry stand (F3)

  • 11th Battalion de Marche Infantry stand (F3)

  • 21st and 23rd North African Anti-Tank Companies Fordson WOt2 25mm CLA portee (S2)

  • 2nd Company, Free French Pioneer base (E1)

44th-infdiv

44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division

Major-General Ivor T.P.Hughes Comd staff car (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 44th Reconnaissance Battalion (detached to 7th Armoured Division)

  • 6th Bn, Cheshire Regiment (MG Bn) Inf MMG stand (S3)

  • 53rd Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 57th Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 58th Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 65th Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 57th Anti-Tank Regt, RA Universal Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 30th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)

  • 11th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 209th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 210th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 211th Fd Park Coy, RE  Low Loader or Truck (E3)

  • 577th Army Fd Coy, RE (attached)  Sapper base (E1)

  • 44th Home Counties Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

131st Infantry Brigade

Brigadier William Donovan Stamer Comd staff car (C3)

  • 1/5th Bn, Queen’s Royal Regt (West Surrey) Inf stand (F3)

  • 1/6th Bn, Queen’s Royal Regt (West Surrey) Inf stand (F3)

  • 1/7th Bn, Queen’s Royal Regnt (West Surrey) Inf stand (F3)

132nd (Kent) Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Lashmer Whistler Comd staff car (C3)

133rd (Lorried) Infantry Brigade

Detached to 10th Armoured Division

7th-armdiv-1st

7th Armoured Division

7 Armd Div Corps Scale Orbat

Major-General John Harding Comd staff car (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 1st Household Cavalry Regt Daimler armoured car (R3)
    + 2 Recce Markers

  • 11th Hussars [under command from 4th Armoured Brigade, in reserve] Morris CS9 armoured car (R3) + 2 Recce Markers

  • 2nd Derbyshire Yeomanry [under command from 8th Armoured Div] Humber A/C or Bren Carrier (R3) + 2 Recce Markers

  • 44th Recce Regt (under comd from 44th Inf Div) Universal Carrier or Dingo lt recce car (R3) + 2 Recce Markers

  • 4th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 21st Field Squadron, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 143rd Field Park Squadron, RE Low Loader or Truck (E3)

  • 7th Armoured Division Signals Dorchester Armoured Command Vehicle (C3)

4th Lt Armd Bde
4th Light Armoured Brigade

Brigadier Marcus G. Roddick M3 Stuart Tank (C3)

57 (2) Stuart, 14 (1) Grant = 71 tanks and 9 armoured cars

22nd_armoured_brigade
22nd Armoured Brigade

Brigadier George “Pip” Roberts M3 Stuart Tank (C3)

57 (2) Grant, 50 (2) Crusader, 19 (1) Stuart = 126 tanks

1st Free French Brigade Group (under command)

Brigadier Marie Pierre Koenig Comd Jeep (C3)

  • 1st Battalion, Foreign Legion Infantry stand (F3)

  • 2nd Battalion, Foreign Legion Infantry stand (F3)

  • 3rd Battalion, Pacific Marine Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 3rd Fd Regt, RA (att) Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 1st Free French Arty Regt Renault limber + 75mm gun (S3)

  • 2nd Anti-Aircraft Company, 1st Marine Fusiliers

  • 2nd Free French Anti-Tank Company +

  • 22nd North African Anti-Tank Company Fordson WOt2 25mm CLA portee (S2)

  • 1st Field Company, Free French Engineers Engr base (E1)

with (under command)

  • 1st Free French Flying Column Automitrailleuse Dodge ‘Tanake'(F2),

  • Armoured Car Squadron and Portee troop, 1st Marocco Spahis Portee 75mm M1897 or ‘Conus gun’ SPG (S3)

  • 1st Free French Tank Company Crusader III Tank (F1)

  • Anti-Aircraft troop, 1st Battalion, Foreign Legion ?25 mm CA mle 39 towed/portee (S1)

30th-corps

XXX Corps

Lieutenant General Oliver Leese Comd in staff car (S3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • XXX Corps Defence Squadron Infantry MMG (S1)

  • C Squadron, 4th/6th South African Armoured Car Regiment Marmon Herrington (R3)

  • 66th Mortar Company, Royal Engineers (two sections detached to 9th Australian Division. Fired only HE during the campaign but trained for chemical warfare) 4.2″ Mortar (S1)

  • 11th Field Company, South African Engineers Sapper (E1)

  • 13th Field Company, South African Engineers Sapper (E1)

  • 22nd Field Park Company, South African Engineers Low Loader (L3), D7 bulldozer (L3)

  • XXX Corps Signals Signals truck (C3)

9th Australian Infantry Division

9th Australian Division

Major General Leslie Morshead Comd staff car (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 9th Division Cavalry Regiment Crusader III or M3 Stuart Tank (F3)

  • 2/2nd Machine Gun Battalion Infantry MMG stand (F3)

  • 2/3rd Pioneer Battalion 3 (E1) Pioneer bases

  • 2/7th Fd Regt, RAA Marmon Herrington FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 2/8th Fd Regt, RAA Marmon Herrington FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 2/12th Fd Regt, RAA Marmon Herrington FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 3rd Anti-Tank Regt, RAA Universal Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 4th LAA Regt, RAA Marmon Herrington FAT + 40mm Bofors/portee AA (S3)

  • 2/3rd Fd Coy, Royal Australian Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 2/7th Fd Coy, Royal Australian Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 2/13th Fd Coy, Royal Australian Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 2/4th Fd Park Coy, Royal Aust Engrs Low Loader/Truck (E3)

  • 9th Australian Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

24th Australian Brigade

Brigadier Arthur H.L. Godfrey  Commander with Mortar (C3)

  • 2/28th Australian Inf Battalion, Western Australia (WA) Rifles (F3)

  • 2/32nd Australian Inf Battalion, Victoria (Vic.) Rifles (F3)

  • 2/43rd Australian Inf Bn, South Australia (SA) Rifles (F3)

26th Australian Brigade

Brigadier David A. Whitehead  Commander with Mortar (C3)

20th Australian Brigade

Brigadier H. Wrigley  Commander with Mortar (C3)

  • 2/13th Australian Inf Battalion, New South Wales (NSW) Rifles (F3)

  • 2/15th Australian Infantry Battalion, Queensland (Qld)  Rifles (F3)

  • 2/17th Australian Inf Bn, NSW Rifles (F3)

51st-infdiv

51st Highland Infantry Division

Major General Douglas Wimberley Comd staff car (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3), Signals Truck (C3)

  • 126th Fd Regt, RA Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 127th Fd Regt, RA Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 128th Fd Regt, RA Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 61st Anti-Tank Regt, RA Universal Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 40th LAA Regt, RA Morris Tow + 40mm Bofors AA (S3) (or portee)

  • 274th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 275th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 276th Field Company, Royal Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 239th Fd Park Coy, RE Low Loader or Truck (L3)

  • 51st Highland Division Signals Signals Truck (C3)

152nd Infantry Brigade

Brigadier George Murray Commander with Mortar (C3)

153rd Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Douglas Graham Commander with Mortar (C3)

  • 5th Battalion, Black Watch Infantry stand (F3)

  • 1st Battalion, Gordon Highlanders Infantry stand (F3)

  • 5th/7th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders Infantry stand (F3)

154th Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Henry W. Houldsworth Commander with Mortar (C3)

2NZ Division

2NZ Division

2nd-new-zealand-infantry-division

2nd New Zealand Division

Lieutenant-General Bernard Freyberg Comd in Dingo (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 4th Fd Regt, Royal NZ Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 5th Fd Regt, Royal NZ Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 6th Fd Regt, Royal NZ Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 7th Anti-Tank Regt, Royal NZ Arty Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 14th LAA Regt, Royal NZ Arty Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (s3) 

  • 6th Fd Coy, Royal New Zealand Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 7th Fd Coy, Royal New Zealand Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 8th Fd Coy, Royal New Zealand Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 5th Fd Park Coy, Royal NZ Engrs Low Loader or Truck (L3)

  • 2nd New Zealand Division Signals Signals truck (C3)

5th New Zealand Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Howard Kippenberger Comd with Mortar (C3)

  • 21st Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 22nd Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 23rd Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 28th (Māori) Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

6th New Zealand Infantry Brigade

Brigadier William Gentry Comd with Mortar (C3)

  • 24th Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 25th Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

  • 26th Battalion, New Zealand Infantry Infantry stand (F3)

9th Armd Bde
9th Armoured Brigade

Brigadier John Currie   Crusader III Tank (C3)

35 (1) Sherman, 37 (1) Grant, 46 (2) Crusader =118

1st-south-african-division

1st South African Infantry Division

Major-General Dan Pienaar  Comd Dingo (C3),  Signals van (C3), Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 8th Royal Tank Regiment (attached from 23rd Armoured Brigade, in reserve until 31 Oct)[nb 1]  Valentine II Tank (C3)

  • 3rd South African Armoured Car Reconnaissance Regiment Marmon Herrington armd car (R3) + 2 recce markers

  • Regiment President Steyn (MG Bn) Inf MMG stand (F3)

  • 2nd Regiment Botha (in res to 31 October) Inf stand (F3)

  • 1st Field Company, South African Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 2nd Field Company, SA Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 3rd Field Company, South African Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 5th Field Company, South African Engineers Sapper base (E1)

  • 19th Fd Park Coy, SA Engineers Low Loader or Truck (L3)

  • 1st South African Division Signals Signals truck (C3)

1st South African Infantry Brigade

Brigadier E.P. Hartshorn  Comander with Mortar (C3)

2nd South African Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Evered Poole  Comander with Mortar (C3)

3rd South African Infantry Brigade

Brigadier R.J. Palmer  Comander with Mortar (C3)

4th-indian-div

4th Indian Infantry Division

Major-General Francis Tuker  Comd India Pattern Carrier (C3),  Ammo/POL Truck (L3), Ambulance (L3), Workshop Truck (L3)

  • 1st Fd Regt Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 11th Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 32nd Fd Regt, Royal Artillery Quad FAT + 25pdr (S3)

  • 149th Anti-Tank Regt, RA India Pattern Carrier + 6pdr (S3)

  • 57th LAA Regt, RA Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (s3) (or portee)

  • 4th Indian Division Signals Signals truck (C3)

5th Indian Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Dudley Russell  Comander with Mortar (C3)

7th Indian Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Arthur Holworthy  Comander with Mortar (C3)

61st Indian Infantry Brigade

Brigadier Francis E.C. Hughes Comander with Mortar (C3)

Corps Reserve

23rd Armd Bde

23rd Armoured Brigade

Brigadier George W. Richards

186 (6) Valentine tanks

  • 121st Field Regiment, Royal Artillery (Used as close support for the Valentine Regts)  3 ton truck limber + Bishop self-propelled 25pdr (S3)

  • 168th Battery, 56th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery Morris Limber + 40mm Bofors AA (S1) (or portee)

  • 295th Army Field Company, Royal Engineers (three troops detached to 50th Royal Tank Regiment with 51st (Highland) Division)

Notes:

*Written in 2015. D-Day 27th October 2018!

I haven’t shown the dozens of corps and army level RASC companies used for ferrying infantry battalions and supplies from railhead to front lines.

Use of 4.2″ mortar HE ammunition is mentioned mainly in 66 Smoke Squadron RE.

Note also links within the text referring to regimental histories, and to Wickipedia, mainly to determine which equipment was in use at the time of the battle. Where no evidence could be found, I have gone with the most likely TO&E, simplified for NQM, so for example, an armoured brigade that would have had a mix of tanks in each regiment has been shown with one tank type in each.

There is considerable lattitude in representing units. Use whatever command and logistic vehicles you have. I’m not attempting to model this orbat in it’s entirety.

I have abbreviated inconsistently, in order to display the orbat in as compressed a manner as possible. Where there is space, I have given titles in full, and where there is not, I have abbreviated to modern British Army Staff College rules, with the odd idiosyncrasy thrown in, because I can! Infantry Stand and Rifles are used interchangably.

Sources

This monster post was originally cut and pasted from Wickipedia at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein_order_of_battle [Accessed 3/8/2015]

Then modified for formatting and NQM orbat strengths.

The following sources were referred to:

Alamein by C.E.Lucas Phillips (1965). Pan Books, London.

British Forces Battle of El Alamein 23 October 1942. Available from: http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/942BJOC.pdf [Accessed 3 Aug 2015]

War Diaries for 2nd Royal Gloucestershire Hussars. Available at:  http://www.warlinks.com/armour/2nd_rgh/index.php [Accessed 3/8/2015]

British Formation Badges 1939-1945 by  Peter Ghiringhelli (2007).

Available from: http://www.petergh.f2s.com/flashes.html  [Accessed 31/10/2016]

 

Advertisements